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Dauug|36 minicomputer documentation

List of instructions

The main function of this page is to provide an alphabetical list of instructions, with a summary of what their mnemonics stand for, whether they are for user or privileged programs, and an approximate category they fall under. However, such a list may fall short of the needs of persons who are new to reading Dauug|36 assembly programs, because some terms they will encounter are not actually instructions in the architecture. Accordingly, this page has three lists:

Persons encountering unfamiliar terminology in assembler programs should be able to locate the word in question on one of these three lists. They are all in alphabetical order.

Alphabetical list of assembler keywords

Here is a list of Dauug|36 assembler keywords. For more detail, see Assembler keywords.

Name Purpose
emit place hand-assembled code within assembler output
keep reserve register(s) for exclusive use and/or map register numbers
opcode obtain 9-bit encoding for a specific opcode
s. abbreviation for signed
scope proposed, but not yet implemented
signed declare signed register(s) or cast register to <signed>
u. abbreviation for unsigned
unsigned declare unsigned register(s) or cast register to <unsigned>
wrap cast indicating a destination register should not be range-checked

Alphabetical list of instructions

This alphabetical list includes every Dauug|36 instruction. The number of opcodes is considerably larger, because certain instructions have many variants. Information about these variants can be found with the documentation for each instruction.

Opcode P/U Category Description
A user ALU: additive add
AC user ALU: additive add with carry
ADDLD user memory add then load
ADDRDM priv unrestricted memory add then read data memory
AND user ALU: boolean AND
ASL user ALU: shift-rotate arithmetic shift left
ASR user ALU: shift-rotate arithmetic shift right
AW user ALU: additive add with wrap
AWC user ALU: additive add with wrap and carry
BOUND user ALU: array check bound
CALL user branch call
CALI priv program init call stack initialize
CMP user ALU: misc arith compare
CRF user ALU: misc arith clear R(ange) flag
DSL user ALU: multiply double shift left
HALT priv pseudo halt
HAM2 user ALU: mixed Hamming weight part 2
HIJACK priv pseudo hijack control decoder
IGF user ALU: boolean ignorant false
IGT user ALU: boolean ignorant true
IMB user ALU: immediate immediate both
IMH user ALU: immediate immediate high
IMN user ALU: immediate immediate negative
IMP user ALU: immediate immediate positive
JUMP user branch jump
JANY priv program init jump anywhere
LANR user ALU: boolean left AND NOT right
LD user memory load
LDSTO user memory load and store
LONR user ALU: boolean left OR NOT right
LSL user ALU: shift-rotate logical shift left
LSR user ALU: shift-rotate logical shift right
MAX user ALU: misc arith maximum
MEMSET user simulation paravirtualized primary storage fill
MH user ALU: multiply multiply high
MHL user ALU: multiply multiply high and low
MHL0 user ALU: multiply multiply high and low, tribble 0
MHL1 user ALU: multiply multiply high and low, tribble 1
MHL2 user ALU: multiply multiply high and low, tribble 2
MHL3 user ALU: multiply multiply high and low, tribble 3
MHL4 user ALU: multiply multiply high and low, tribble 4
MHL5 user ALU: multiply multiply high and low, tribble 5
MHNS user ALU: multiply multiply high no shift
MIN user ALU: misc arith minimum
MIX user ALU: subst-perm mix
ML user ALU: multiply multiply low
NAND user ALU: boolean NAND
NL user ALU: boolean NOT left
NOLIST user ALU: mixed NOP, but not shown in listings
NOP user ALU: mixed no operation
NOR user ALU: boolean NOR
NPCALL priv identity-modifying call nonprivileged subroutine
NPRIV priv identity-modifying nonprivileged user
NR user ALU: boolean NOT right
NUDGE user ALU: misc arith nudge
OR user ALU: boolean OR
PAIT user ALU: rearrange permute across and inside tribbles
PAT user ALU: rearrange permute across tribbles
PCALL priv identity-modifying call privileged subroutine
PEEK priv identity-modifying peek
PIT user ALU: rearrange permute inside tribbles
POKE priv identity-modifying poke
PRIV priv identity-modifying privileged user (superuser)
PVIO user simulation paravirtualized input and output
RETURN user branch return
RANL user ALU: boolean right AND NOT left
RCM1 priv unrestricted memory read code memory part 1
RCM2 priv unrestricted memory read code memory part 2
RDM priv unrestricted memory read data memory
REVERT user branch revert
ROL user ALU: shift-rotate rotate left
RONL user ALU: boolean right OR NOT left
RPT priv unrestricted memory read page table
RS user ALU: additive reverse subtract
RSC user ALU: additive reverse subtract with carry
RSW user ALU: additive reverse subtract with wrap
RSWC user ALU: additive reverse subtract with wrap and carry
RWDM priv unrestricted memory read and write data memory
S user ALU: additive subtract
SC user ALU: additive subtract with carry
SETUP priv identity-modifying setup
STO user memory store
STO2 user memory store twice
STUN user ALU: mixed stacked unary
SW user ALU: additive subtract with wrap
SWC user ALU: additive subtract with wrap and carry
SWIZ user ALU: rearrange swizzle
TIMER priv program init set multitasking timer
TXOR user ALU: rearrange transposing XOR
UN.A user ALU: mixed unary alpha
UN.B user ALU: mixed unary beta
UN.G user ALU: mixed unary gamma
USER priv identity-modifying user
WCM priv unrestricted memory write code memory
WDM priv unrestricted memory write data memory
WDM2 priv unrestricted memory write data memory twice
WPT priv unrestricted memory write page table
XANY priv program init execute any instruction
XIM user ALU: subst-perm unmix
XL user ALU: boolean exactly left
XNOR user ALU: boolean exclusive NOR
XOOB priv pseudo executable out-of-band command
XOR user ALU: boolean exclusive OR
XR user ALU: boolean exactly right
YIELD user YIELD yield

Alphabetical list of assembler macros

The following assembler macros are defined in Marc’s dissertation and are to be expanded using one or more assembler instructions, usually involving at least one STUN with an esoteric constant.

None of these macros are implemented as of June 2023, but all are planned. They are straightforward and risk-free to implement, but they are tedious and require regression tests to be written. Because none of these macros are in the critical path toward implementation of a physical Dauug|36 machine, none will ease the implementation of such a machine, and most would not found in typical assembly programs, all are temporarily on hold.

Name Description
ABS absolute value
BOL brighten ones left
BOLI brighten ones left invert
BOR brighten ones right
BORI brighten ones right invert
BZL brighten zeros left
BZLI brighten zeros left invert
BZR brighten zeros right
BZRI brighten zeros right invert
CLO count leading ones
CLZ count leading zeros
CTO count trailing ones
CTZ count trailing zeros
CX check and extend
EOL erase ones left
EOLI erase ones left invert
EOR erase ones right
EORI erase ones right invert
EZL erase zeros left
EZLI erase zeros left invert
EZR erase zeros right
EZRI erase zeros right invert
FABS fast absolute value
FOL find one left
FOLI find one left invert
FOR find one right
FORI find one right invert
FZL find zero left
FZLI find zero left invert
FZR find zero right
FZRI find zero right invert
GOL grow one left
GOLI grow one left invert
GOR grow one right
GORI grow one right invert
GZL grow zero left
GZLI grow zero left invert
GZR grow zero right
GZRI grow zero right invert
HAM1 Hamming weight part 1
HAM2 renamed HAM1 (see below)
IPSR removed from architecture
LAS removed from architecture
LFSR linear feedback shift register
LOL light ones left
LOLI light ones left invert
LOR light ones right
LORI light ones right invert
LZL light zeros left
LZLI light zeros left invert
LZR light zeros right
LZRI light zeros right invert
MIRD mirrored decrement
MIRI mirrored increment
NAS removed from architecture
PARTY parity
POPC population count
PRL prepare to rotate left
PRR prepare to rotate right
PSL prepare to shift left
PSR prepare to shift right
RTGL rotate T going left
RTGR rotate T going right
STGL shift T going left
STGR shift T going right
XPOLY XOR polynomial if T is set

The Hamming weight (population count) sequence has been shortened from three to two instructions. The HAM1 macro is executed first, and the HAM2 instruction second. The POPC macro expands into HAM1 and HAM2 as a further convenience.

Marc W. Abel
Computer Science and Engineering
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Without secure hardware, there is no secure software.